History of Bergey's Manual and the Trust

Early days

The first edition of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology was initiated by action of the Society of American Bacteriologists (now called the American Society for Microbiology) by appointment of an Editorial Board consisting of David H. Bergey (Chairman, pictured below), Francis C. Harrison, Robert S. Breed, Bernard W. Hammer and Frank M. Huntoon. This Board, under the auspices of the Society of American Bacteriologists who, then as now, published the Journal of Bacteriology as a service to science, brought the first edition of the Manual into print in 1923. The Board, with some changes in membership and Dr Bergey as Chairman, published a second edition of the Manual in 1925 and a third edition in 1930.

In 1934, during preparation of the fourth edition, Dr Bergey requested that the Society of American Bacteriologists make available the royalties paid to the Treasurer of the Society from the sale of the earlier editions to defray the expense of preparing the fourth edition for publication. The Society made such provision, but the use of the Society's fiscal machinery proved cumbersome, both to the Society and the Editorial Board. Subsequently, it was agreed by the Society and Dr Bergey that the Society would transfer to Dr Bergey all of its rights, title and interest in the Manual and that Dr Bergey would, in turn, create an educational trust to which all rights would be transferred.

Formation of the Trust

Dr Bergey was then the nominal owner of the Manual and he executed a Trust Indenture on January 2, 1936, designating David H. Bergey, Robert S. Breed and Everitt G. D. Murray as the initial trustees, and transferring to the Trustees and their successors the ownership of the Manual, its copyrights and the right to receive the income arising from its publication. The Trust is a nonprofit organization and its income is used solely for the purpose of preparing, editing and publishing revisions and successive editions of the Manual and any supplementary publications, as well as providing for any research that may be necessary or desirable in such activities.

David H. Bergey Robert Stanley Breed, 1877-1956 Everitt G. D. Murray, 1890-1964
David Henricks Bergey, Robert Stanley Breed and Everitt G.D. Murray

Since the creation of the Trust, the Trustees have published, successively, the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth editions of the Manual (dated 1934, 1939, 1948, 1957, 1974 and 1994, respectively). In 1977 the Trust published an abbreviated version of the eighth edition, called The Shorter Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology; this contained the outline classification of the bacteria, the descriptions of all genera and higher taxa, all of the keys and tables for the diagnosis of species, all of the illustrations and two of the introductory chapters; however, it did not contain the detailed species descriptions, most of the taxonomic comments, the etymology of names or references to authors.

Beyond the Determinative

Other ventures in producing books to assist those engaged in bacteriology and bacterial taxonomy in particular include the Index Bergeyana (1966), a Supplement to Index Bergeyana (1981), and a planned future volume bringing the lists of published names up to date. The Trust is presently publishing the second edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, which has a much broader scope than the previous publications and is intended to act as the amplified source for revision of the determinative Manual.

Through the years the Manual has become a widely used international reference work for bacterial taxonomy. Similarly, the Bergey's Manual Trust has become international in its composition, in the location of its meetings and in the breadth of its consultations. In addition to its publication activities, the Trust attempts to foster and support various aspects of taxonomic research. One of the ways in which it does this is by recognizing those individuals who have made outstanding contributions to bacterial taxonomy, through its periodic presentation of the Bergey Award, an effort jointly supported by funds from the Trust and Williams & Wilkins (now Lippincott Williams & Wilkins) (1979-1998) and Springer-Verlag (1999-present).

A fuller account of the history and development of the Trust and the Manuals is printed in Vol. 2A of the Second Edition of the Systematics.



The Board of Trustees

Officers

Chair: Fred A. Rainey
Vice-Chair: Peter Kämpfer
Secretary: Martha E. Trujillo
Treasurer: William B. Whitman



Svetlana Dedysh Svetlana N. Dedysh
Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology
Russian Academy of Sciences
Prospect 60-letya Octyabrya 7/2
Moscow 117312
Russia

Her main field of research is the microbiology of northern wetlands. Areas of research expertise are: 1) biology and ecology of methane-oxidizing bacteria; 2) microbial diversity in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands; 3) cultivation of bacteria from poorly studied phyla (Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes), 4) bacteria responsible for biopolymer degradation in northern wetlands. She is the author of 15 novel bacterial genera and 30 novel species descriptions.
http://www.inmi.ru/laboratories


Paul De Vos
Vakgroep BFM WE10V
Laboratorium voor Microbiologie
Universiteit Gent, K L Ledeganckstraat 35
B-9000 Gent
Belguim
Paul.DeVos at UGent.be

General research interests are bacterial biodiversity, evolution and taxonomy, identification and detection. Current research projects are linked with bacteria involved in the Nitrogen cycle (denitrification & nitrification; methanotrophs); the role of aerobic sporeformers (Bacillus and related organisms) in a variety of niches e.g. raw milk; the role of aerobic gram negative staining bacteria such as Pseudomonas in regard to plant pathogenicity, raw milk and various other niches; the presence and role of plant pathogenic pseudomonads/xanthomonads/Clavibacter, their importance as quarantine organisms.
Director of BCCM/bacteria collection: http://bccm.belspo.be/about-us/bccm-lmg
Curator of Q-Bank: http://www.q-bank.eu/

Hedlund

Brian P. Hedlund

School of Life Sciences

University of Nevada Las Vegas

Las Vegas, NV 89154-4004

USA

brian.hedlund at unlv.edu

Research in the Hedlund lab focuses mostly on life in terrestrial geothermal systems, including the isolation and characterization of novel organisms, ecosystem ecology and biogeochemistry, and a variety of studies on yet-uncultivated microorganisms in nature. Recent progress has focused on the use of single-cell genomics and metagenomics and molecular ecology approaches to explore candidate phyla of both Bacteria and Archaea. The Hedlund lab also collaborates with industrial and academic partners to work on development of disease diagnostics, bacterial diseases, and biofuels technologies.
https://faculty.unlv.edu/hedlund/


Peter Kampfer Peter Kämpfer, Vice-Chair
Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie
Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen
Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32 (IFZ)
D-35392 Giessen
Germany
Peter.Kaempfer at umwelt.uni-giessen.de

Characterization of microbial communities using both molecular and traditional methods, including investigations on structures and functions of soil, wastewater, bioaerosol, and phyllosphere microbial communities; the development and application of oligonucleotide-probes and real-time PCR for the characterization of bacterial communities and comparison with classical methods, and the taxonomy of different bacterial groups.
https://www.uni-giessen.de/cms/faculties/f09/institutes/appmicro/kaempfer


Fred A. Rainey Fred A. Rainey, Chair
Professor and Director
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Alaska Anchorage
USA
farainey at uaa.alaska.edu

Exploring, culturing, and describing microbial diversity in extreme environments describe the current research interests of the Rainey Lab. The environments which we are currently studying include arid and hyperarid lands, high arctic springs, pitcher plants, hazardous waste sites and off shore oil and gas platforms. We use both classical and molecular microbiological approaches in our research. Rainey Lab has a number of collaborations with research groups around the world with whom we contribute to the polyphasic description of novel taxa.
http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/biological-sciences/faculty-and-staff/rainey.cfm


Martha E. Trujillo, Secretary
Depto. de Microbiologia y Genetica
Edificio Departamental Lab. 205
Universidad de Salamanca
37007 Salamanca
Spain
mett at usal.es

Martha E. Trujillo is a Professor of Microbiology at the University of Salamanca (Spain) and Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. Her main research areas are bacterial systematics and microbial ecology with special interest in plant-actinobacteria interactions, bacterial communities that inhabit deteriorated stone monuments and composts. She is editor for IJSEM, ANTO and PLOSOne Journals.


William B. Whitman William B. Whitman, Treasurer
Department of Microbiology
527 Biological Sciences Bldg.
University of Georgia
Athens, GA 30602-2605
USA
whitman at uga.edu

Our research examines the physiology, systematics and ecology of environmentally important microorganisms, but especially the methane-producing archaea and the marine alpha proteobacteria. Of special interest is to understand the complete organism, from the biochemical mechanisms it uses to accomplish its day-to-day tasks of living to its interactions with other organisms and its environment in general. Every organism has its own story. Our methanogen work focuses on Methanococcus, which is common in estuarine environments. Currently, we are using genetic methods to elucidate novel biosynthetic pathways and mechanisms of sulfur metabolism. The roseobacters play important roles in the transformation of carbon and sulfur compounds in the ocean and estuarine environments. Currently, we are studying the metabolism of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a common osmolyte and major source of atmospheric sulfur, by Ruegeria pomeroyi. Studies of this model organism provide insights into the mechanisms of DMSP degradation in the natural environments.
http://mib.uga.edu/research/labs/whitman
https://research.franklin.uga.edu/whitman/


Associate Members

John P. Bowman
Associate Professor of Microbiology
Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture,
School of Land and Food,
University of Tasmania
Sandy Bay Campus, Hobart, Tasmania 7005
Australia
john.bowman at utas.edu.au

John Bowman is Centre Leader for Food safety and Quality within the Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture.  Basic research interests include the taxonomy, ecology and functional genomics of cold adapted and food-associated microorganisms and more broadly in the field of predictive microbiology. Active research is largely applied and focuses in food production systems including farmed fish productivity and health, read meat quality and safety, barley malt quality, and soil biology in managed systems.
http://www.utas.edu.au/profiles/staff/agricultural-science/john-bowman


Daniel R. Brown, Ph.D.
Department of Infectious Diseases & Pathology
University of Florida
VAB2-158, 2015 SW 16th Avenue
Gainesville, Florida 32608
USA
drbrown at ufl.edu

Daniel R. Brown received his Ph.D. in Genetics from the University of Arizona in 1987. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Florida, where his main research interest is the cellular microbiology of Mycoplasma spp. and related organisms with a focus on mechanisms and evolution of virulence. He is curator of The Mollicutes Collection (World Federation of Culture Collections acronym TMC; World Data Centre for Microorganisms Collection Number 858).

 

Univ. Doz. Dr, Hans-Jürgen Busse
Institute of Microbiology 
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Veterinärplatz 1,
A-1210 Vienna, Austria
hans-juergen.busse at vetmeduni.ac.at

The work focuses on description of novel species and higher taxa from different major lines of descent including Archaea, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes andActinobacteria which have been isolated from numerous different habitats. Special emphasis is given to analyses of chemotaxonomic traits such as quinones, polar lipids, polyamines, mycolic acids and the diagnostic diamino acids of the peptidoglycan, to genomic fingerprinting and to analysis of 16S rRNA and house-keeping gene sequences. HJB is member of the editorial boards of IJEM and SAM.

 

Richard D. Castenholz
Institute of Ecology and Evolution
University of Oregon
Eugene, OR 97403
USA
rcasten at uoregon.edu

Richard Castenholz received his Ph.D. from Washington State University, and is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Biology (Institute of Ecology and Evolution), University of Oregon, Eugene, where he has been a faculty member since 1957. His research began with the study of epilithic freshwater and marine diatoms, and later to phototrophic, extremotolerant microorganisms (thermophiles, halophiles, acidophiles, psychrophiles, and desiccation-tolerant forms). Studies (past and present) also involve sulfide-and anoxia-tolerance. He has worked on the taxonomy of cyanobacteria and maintained a large culture collection of these bacteria. He was the chief author and editor of the cyanobacterial sections of the 1989 and 2001 editions of Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology.

 

Frank O. GlÖckner
Head of the Microbial Genomics and Bioinformatics Research Group
Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology
Jacobs University, Bremen gGmbH
Celsiusstrasse 1, 28359 Bremen
Germany
fog at mpi-bremen.de

Frank Olver GlÖckner is Professor of Bioinformatics at Jacobs University Bremen and Head of Microbial Genomics and Bioinformatics Research Group at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, Germany. His group develops enabling technologies to transform the wealth of sequence- and metadata from the environment into biological knowledge. Techniques are whole genome and metagenome analysis, sequence classification, phylogenetic interference as well as software and database development for integrated data analysis. His group is operating the European ribosomal RNA database SILVA providing high quality data products and services for the academia and industry (www.arb-silva.de). He has worked with Wolfgang Ludwig since more than 20 years on the software (ARB, www.arb-home.de) and database development (SILVA) as well as ribosomal DNA (rDNA) alignments, phylogeny and taxonomy. Together with Dr. Pelin Yilmaz, the chief taxonomy curator of SILVA, we will work on reconciling the taxomony of Bacteria and Archaea on the rDNA phylogeny.
http://www.microbial-genomics.de
http://www.ribocon.com 

 

Aharon Oren
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Edmond J. Safra Campus
Jerusalem 91904, Israel
aharon.oren at mail.huji.ac.il

Aharon Oren was born in Zwolle, the Netherlands, in 1952. He received his M.Sc. degree in microbiology and biochemistry from the University of Groningen (1974), and his Ph.D. in microbiology from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1979). After a post-doctoral period at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign he joined the faculty of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem where he currently is professor of microbial ecology. His research centers on the study of hypersaline environments and the halophilic microorganisms inhabiting them. He has a great interest in the taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes and he is past president and past executive secretary of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. He is editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, managing editor of Extremophiles, and section editor of FEMS Microbiology Letters. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and he received honorary doctorates from the University of Osnabrück, Germany (2010) and from the Charles University in Prague (2015).

 

Bruce J. Paster, Ph.D.
Department of Microbiology
Director, HOMINGS Oral Bacterial Identification Core
Director, Sequencing Core
The Forsyth Institute
245 First St.
Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
bpaster at forsyth.org

Dr. Bruce Paster is Senior Member of Staff and Chair of the Department of Microbiology at The Forsyth Institute in Cambridge, MA.  He is Professor of the Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity at the Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA.  He is also Professor II at the Institute of Oral Biology in the University of Oslo, Norway. Dr. Paster received his BS with honors at the University of RI and his Ph.D. at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst.  He was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Illinois in Urbana with Dr. Carl Woese and at The Forsyth Institute with Dr. Ron Gibbons before becoming a member of Staff at The Forsyth Institute in 1986.  The goal of his research has been to determine the microbial diversity of the oral cavity, and to develop and use rapid molecular means of bacterial identification to better understand the role bacteria play in the etiology of oral health and disease.
http://www.forsyth.org/research
http://homings.forsyth.org

 

Anne-Louise Reysenbach
Biology Department
Portland State University
Portland, OR 97201
bwar at pdx.edu
www.alrlab.pdx.edu

 

Ken-Ichiro Suzuki
NITE Biological Resource Center (NBRC)
National Institute of Technology and Evaluation
2-5-8, Kazusakamatari 2-chome, Kisarazu-shi
Chiba 292-0818,
Japan
suzuki-ken-ichiro at nite.go.jp

 

William Wade
Blizard Institute
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
w.wade at qmul.ac.uk
Twitter: @oralmolecol

 Current research interests are the characterization of the composition of the human microbiome, determination of the functional roles of members of the microbiome in health and disease and the development of novel methods for the culture of the majority of the microbiome which has yet to be cultured. The description of novel human-associated bacterial species is a major focus. An in-vitro biofilm model has been developed which is being used in the development and evaluation of novel prevention measures and treatments, such as probiotics, for microbiome-associated diseases.
http://www.blizard.qmul.ac.uk/staff/47-centre-for-immunobiology/838-wade-william.html#bio

 

Wilmotte Annick
Université de Liège 
Département des sciences de la vie / Enzymologie 
BAT. B6 Enzymologie allée de la Chimie,

3 - 4000 Liège 1
Belgium
awilmotte at ulg.ac.be 

Annick Wilmotte is Research Associate of the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research - FNRS. She is secretary of the Subcommittee for the Taxonomy of Phototrophic Bacteria of the ICSB (International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology). Her research interests are the cyanobacterial biodiversity, taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography. Research in her lab involves a polyphasic approach to diversity studies, including the isolation of new strains and their phenotypic and genotypic characterization as well as cultivation-independent methods based on the use of molecular markers (16S rRNA and ITS).

 

Naomi Ward
Director, Wyoming INBRE Bioinformatics Core
Department of Molecular Biology, Department of Botany
University of Wyoming
Laramie, WY 82071
nlward at uwyo.edu

Research in the Ward laboratory is conducted on bacteria, and focuses on evolutionary cell biology and ecology. We have a particular interest in the unusual endomembranes of planctomycete bacteria (especially Gemmata obscuriglobus), how these features evolved within the planctomycete lineage, and their functional consequences for the biology of the cell. While most of our recent work has been on the spatial organization of gene expression, we are also interested in other structural and functional aspects of the endomembranes. Most of our ecology work is conducted within the human gastrointestinal tract, where we are examining the contribution of the gut microbiome to pediatric health and disease. Our primary focus is on Hirschsprung’s disease, a developmental defect of the enteric nervous system that often leads to enterocolitis, a serious inflammatory condition. Our recent work suggests that the primary developmental defect alters early microbial colonization of the gut, which may predispose these patients to enterocolitis. A future goal is to apply an improved understanding of these processes to the development of more effective clinical interventions. www.naomiwardlab.com

 



Former members of the Board of Trustees



Photographs from Trust meetings

November 1960 at Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
Bergey's Manual Trustees, November 1960
From left: G. Edsall, R.E. Buchanan, C.F. Niven, Jr, N.R. Smith and E.G.D. Murray
September 1985 at Stamford, UK
Bergey's Manual Trustees, September 1985
From left: D. Brenner, P. Sneath, N. Krieg, J. Holt, J. Moulder, N. Pfennig, J. Staley, S. Williams, M. Bryant and R. Murray.
August 1997 at Sun River, OR, USA
Bergey's Manual Trustees, August 1997
From left: J. Staley, S. Williams, G. Garrity, J. Holt, K. Schleifer, D. Brenner, N. Krieg, R. Castenholz, D. Boone and P. Sneath.
September 2007 at Athens, GA, USA
Bergey's Manual Trust, September 2007
From left: Wolfgang Ludwig, Jack Holt, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Barny Whitman, Karl Schleifer, Jim Staley, Paul De Vos, Peter Kämpfer, Brian P. Hedlund, Mike Goodfellow, Peter Sneath, Linda Sanders, Bruce Paster, Bob Murray, Don Brenner, Ken Suzuki, Fred Rainey and Aidan Parte.
Please click here for more photos from the 2007 meeting in Athens, GA
May/June 2008 at Salem, MA, USA
Bergey's Manual Trust, May/June 2008

Larger version is here.

Back row, from left: Mike Goodfellow, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Paul De Vos, Jim Staley, Martha E. Trujillo, Naomi Ward, Wolfgang Ludwig, Karl Schleifer, Peter Kämpfer. Front row, from left: Barny Whitman, Ken Suzuki, Brian P. Hedlund, Bruce Paster, Fred Rainey and Aidan Parte.
June 2009 at Gothenburg, Sweden
Bergey's Manual Trust, June 2009

Larger version is here.

From left: Mike Goodfellow, Wolfgang Ludwig, Jongsik Chun, Aidan Parte, Karl Schleifer, Barny Whitman, Jim Staley, Hans-Jürgen Busse, William Wade, Martha E. Trujillo, Daniel Brown, Fred Rainey, Peter Kämpfer and Paul De Vos.
May 2010 at Seville, Spain
Bergey's Manual Trust, May 2010

Larger version is here.

Back row, from left: Paul De Vos, Hans-Jürgen Busse, Antonio Ventosa, Barny Whitman and Martha E. Trujillo. Front row, from left: Ken Suzuki, Peter Kämpfer, Karl Schleifer, Mike Goodfellow and Jim Staley.
May 2011 at Beijing, China
Bergey's Manual Trust, May 2011

Larger version is here.

From left: Jongsik Chun, Ying Huang, Mike Goodfellow, Peter Kämpfer, Jim Staley, Fred Rainey, Karl Schleifer, Aidan Parte, Martha E. Trujillo, Paul De Vos, Barny Whitman and Wen-Jun Li.
April 2014 at Edinburgh, Scotland
Bergey's Manual Trust, April 2014

Larger version is here.

From left: Jongsik Chun, Martha Trujillo, Fred Rainey, Mike Goodfellow, Peter Kaempfer, and Barny Whitman.
June 2015 at Anchorage, Alaska USA

Larger version is here.

From left: Fred Rainey, Paul De Vos, Brian Hedlund, Svetlana Dedysh, Martha Trujillo, Barny Whitman, Peter Kaempfer, and Jongsik Chun.

The Bergey Award

The Bergey Award is given in recognition of outstanding contributions to bacterial taxonomy.

Awardees:



The Bergey Medal

The Bergey Medal is awarded in recognition of outstanding and life-long contributions to the field of systematics of Bacteria and Archaea. Nominations may be submitted at any time to the Bergey's editorial office at bergeys@uga.edu. Nominations should include a cover letter summarizing the candidate's qualifications, the significance of contributions to the systematics of prokaryotes, and their curriculum vitae.

Bergey Medal front view Bergey Medal rear view

Recipients: